Russ Espinoza, Ph. D

Professor of Psychology

 

Degrees

Ph.D., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 2005 (Psychology and Law; Minor - Quantitative Methods) -

M.S., California State University, Northridge, 2000 (Counseling, Marriage and Family Therapy, M.F.T.)

B.A., California State University, Northridge, 1998 (Psychology)

 

Research Areas

Prejudice in the Legal System, Juror Decision Making, Cognition and Stereotyping. My primary line of research examines prejudice in the legal system that exists based on socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity and how jurors are influenced by these extra-legal factors. Low SES, minority defendants are found more culpable, found guilty more often, and given lengthier sentences in comparison to other status majority defendants for similar crime commissions. My second line of research examines the underlying cognitive associations to stereotypes and prejudice towards specific groups and their treatment in media, healthcare, education, business, etc.

 

Books

Espinoza, R. K. E (2018). Forensic and Legal Psychology: Instructor Manual. In M. Costanzo & D. Krauss (Eds.), Forensic and legal  psychology: Psychological science applied to law.  New York, NY: Macmillan Education  

Espinoza, R. K. E. (2010). Juror bias in the U.S. legal system: Examining problems and solutions. Saarbrücken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.

 

JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS

Coons, J. V. & Espinoza, R. K. E. (2018). An examination of aversive heterosexism in the  courtroom? Effects of defendants’ sexual orientation and attractiveness, and juror gender on legal decision making. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 5(1), 36-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org.lib-proxy.fullerton.edu/10.1037/sgd0000253 

 Coleman, J.C., Espinoza, R. K. E. & Coons. J. V. (2017). An Empirical Comparison of the Old and Revised Jury Instructions of California: Do Jurors Comprehend Legal Ease Better or Does Bias Still Exist? OAL Journal of Law, 4, 1-15.

 Minero, L. P.  & Espinoza, R. K. E. (2016) The Influence of Defendant Immigration Status, Country of Origin, and Ethnicity on Juror Decisions: An Aversive Racism Explanation for Juror Bias. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 38, 55-74.  doi: 10.1177/0739986315620374

  Espinoza, R. K. E., Willis-Esqueda, C., Toscano, S. & Coons, J. V. (2015). The Impact of Ethnicity, Immigration Status and SES on Juror Decision Making. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 13 (3), 197-216.

Espinoza, R. K. E. & Willis-Esqueda, C. (2014). The Influence of Defendant's Mitigating Information, Race and SES on Death Penalty Decisions by European American and Hispanic Venire Persons. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology.

 Espinoza, R. K. E. , Willis-Esqueda, C., Toscano. S. & Coons, J. V. (2014). The Impact of Ethnicity, Immigration Status and SES on Juror Decision Making. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice.

 Espinoza, R. K. E. , Ek, B. J. & Espinoza, H. A. (2012). An Examination of Juveniles Being Tried As Adults: Influences of Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Age of Defendant. The National Social Science Journal, 37 (1), 30-37.

 Rangoonwala, F. I., Sy, S. R. & Espinoza, R. K. E. (2011). Muslim Identity, Islamic Dress Adherence, and College Adjustment among Muslim American Women. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 31 (2), 231-241.

 Espinoza, R. K. E. (2009). Juror bias and the death penalty: Deleterious effects of ethnicity and SES. The American Association of Behavioral and Social Sciences Journal, Fall, 33- 41.

 Espinoza, R. K. E. & Willis Esqueda, C. (2008). Defendant and defense attorney characteristics and their effects on juror decision making and prejudice against Mexican-Americans. The Journal of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. The Journal of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 364-371. Publications/Espinoza2008_CDEMP.pdf PDF File

 Willis Esqueda, C., Espinoza, R. K. E., & Culhane, S. (2008). The effects of ethnicity, SES and crime status on juror decision making: A cross-cultural examination of European-American and Mexican American mock jurors. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 30, 181-199. Publications/2008HJBS_Manuscript.pdf PDF File

 Espinoza, R. K. E. & Willis Esqueda, C. (under review). The Influence of Aggravating and Mitigating Factors, Ethnicity and SES on Death Penalty Cases: An Examination of White and Hispanic Juror Decisions.

 Espinoza, R.K.E (2010). Does SES and social support contribute to expectations about counseling? A cross cultural comparison between European Americans and Mexican Americans. Preparing for submission.

Espinoza, R. K. E. (2010) Prejudice against Hispanics: Development, reliability, and validity of the PAH Scale. Preparing for submission

 Espinoza, R.K.E (2010). Reducing implicit prejudice against Latinos: A cognitive dissonance explanation. Preparing for submission.

 

CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS

Espinoza, R.K.E., & Harter, D. (2018). Does Juror Authoritarianism and Defendant Race and  Attractiveness Bias Decisions for Mothers Accused of Infanticide? A Mock Juror Study. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association             Conference, Sacramento, CA. April 26-29.

 Espinoza, R.K.E., Young, J., Campoy, V., Grisham, T. & Nguyen, H. (2018). Mass Shootings, Race, and Mental Illness: Do Jurors Views of Mental Illness Bias Decisions for Racially  Diverse Defendants? Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Sacramento, CA. April 26-29.

 Espinoza, R.K.E., De La Rosa, S., Gonzalez, A., Morales-Torres, E. & Muniz, K. (2018). Does   Race of Police Officer, Prior Incidents of Excessive Force, and Juror Police Cynicism  Contribute to Juror Bias? A Mock Juror Study. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Sacramento, CA. April 26-29.

 Espinoza, R.K.E., Castillo, T., Kalaw, J., Bliss, K. & Pauley, S. (2018). Influences of Juror  Levels of Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation on Capital   Cases for Racially Diverse Defendants. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Sacramento, CA. April 26-29.

 Espinoza, R.K.E., Morales-Torres, E., De La Rosa, S., Gonzalez, A. & Muniz, K. (2018). Does Juror Social Dominance and Level of Political Correctness Influence Decisions  for Police Officers Who Vary By Race? A Mock Juror Study. Poster presented at the American Association of Behavioral and Social Science Conference, Las Vegas, NV. Feb. 26-27.

Espinoza, R. K. E. Sanchez, P., Aguinaldo, E., Lazaro, M. & Morrison, C. (2017). Juror   Political Correctness and Level of SDO for Cases Involving Police Brutality: Does Race  of Officer and Victim Matter? Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Sacramento, CA. April 27-30.

 Espinoza, R. K. E., Acosta, R., Tran, D., Fernandez, Y. & Jasmin, M. (2017). Police Officers  Charged with Murder: Does Juror Level of RWA and Police Cynicism Influence   Decisions When Race is Salient? Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Sacramento, CA. April 27-30.

Espinoza, R. K. E., Hayes, S. & Acevedo, C. (2017). Does DNA Evidence Influence Juror   Decisions for Capital Cases Involving Defendant Race and SES? Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Sacramento, CA. April 27-30.

Espinoza, R. K. E., Acosta, R., Beitzel, M., Hyde, L. & Xavier, J. (2017). Influences of Race and SES for Police Brutality Cases: A Mock Juror Study for Police Officers with Prior Incidences of Excessive Force. Poster presented at the American Association of Behavioral and Social Science Conference, Las Vegas, NV. Jan. 30-31.

  Espinoza, R.K.E., Ariana Vargas, Renee Acosta & Maria Beitzel (2016). Do jurors’ views on gun control contribute to juror bias for mentally ill defendants when defendant and victim race are varied? An empirical examination. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Long Beach, CA. 

  Espinoza, R.K.E., Brooke Hunter, Dominic Villanueva & Sarah Martinez (2016). Police brutality and juror decisions: Influence of officer race, victim race and SES, and jurors level of right-wing authoritarianism. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Long Beach, CA.   

  Espinoza, R.K.E., Sarah Kilcullen, Alexis Drain & Briana Zafranovich (2016). Why do cases involving officers accused of police brutality rarely go to trial? An aversive racism explanation for grand jury bias. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Long Beach, CA. 

 Espinoza, R.K.E., Hailey Harris, Lyndsey Hyde & Crysta Godinez (2016). Does social dominance orientation of jurors affect cases for racially diverse, mentally ill defendants? A mock jury study. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Long Beach, CA. 

 Espinoza, R.K.E., Harris, H. & Kilcullen, S. (2016). Influence of Victim and Officer Race and Victim Socioeconomic Status for Cases of Police Brutality: A Mock Juror Study. Poster presented at the Society for Personality and Social psychology Conference, San Diego, CA.

  Espinoza, R.K.E. (2015) M’Naghten and Defendant/Victim Race in California: Do Jurors Views of Mental Illness Factor into Defendant Culpability for Racially Diverse Mentally Ill Defendants? Poster presented at the American Psychological Society Conference, New York, NY.

  Espinoza, R. K. E., Sambrano, D., Hunter, B. & Peterson, H. (2015). Influence of Juror Views of Mentally Ill Defendants and Level of RWA for Racially Diverse Defendants. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

Espinoza, R. K. E., Defriese, G., Csiszer, A. & Sanchez, J. (2015). An Empirical Examination    of the M’Naughten Rule: Influences of Defendant/Victim Race and Victim Age. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

Espinoza, R. K. E., Bohorquez, L., Flores, M. & Smith, L. (2015). Influence of Juror SES and Views of Mental Illness for Racially Diverse Mentally Ill Defendants . Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

Espinoza, R. K. E., Almeida, M., Ranker, B. & Upchurch, S. (2015). The Influence of Juror SES  on Culpability Assignment When Defendant and Victim Race Are Varied. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

Ryks, M., Sanders, J. & Espinoza, R. K. E. (2015). Combined Effects of Juror Gender and Right-Wing Authoritarianism on Culpability Assignment. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

 Pham, D. & Espinoza, R. K. E. (2015). Influence of Juror Gender and Victim Race on Culpability Assignment for Mentally Ill Defendants. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

  Espinoza, R. K. E. (2014). Prejudice Toward Undocumented, low SES, Latino Defendants in Juror Decision Making: An Empirical Examination. Poster presented at the American Psychological Society Conference, San Francisco, CA.

  Espinoza, R. K. E., Lam, P., Jeffers, S. & Kurkoske, M. (2014). Right-Wing Authoritarianism and gun control: An empirical mock-juror study. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Portland, OR.

  Espinoza, R. K. E., Adkins, A., Popoff, J., Bleich, S. & Sy, A. (2014). A mock-juror study of race/age and the Sandyhook tragedy. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Portland, OR.

  Espinoza, R. K. E., Chumpitaz, M., Gallardo, J. & Orbegoso, S. (2014). Aversive racism, gun   control, defendant/victim race and juror decision making. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association Conference, Portland, OR.

  Espinoza, R. K. E., (2014). Influence of Gun Control, Race, and Age of Victim for Mentally Ill  Defendants Accused of Murder: A Mock Juror Examination. Poster presented at the Society for Personality and Social Psychology Conference, Austin, TX.

Espinoza, R. K. E., Ek, B. J. & Espinoza, H. A. (2010). An Examination of Juveniles Being Tried As Adults: Influences of Race and SES. Paper presented at the National Social Science Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV.